Thirteen Factories

The Thirteen Factories, also known as the Canton Factories, was a neighbourhood along the Pearl River in southwestern Guangzhou (Canton) in the Qing Empire from c. 1684 to 1856 around modern day Xiguan, in Guangzhou's Liwan District. These warehouses and stores were the principal and sole legal site of most Western trade with China from 1757 to 1842. The factories were destroyed by fire in 1822 by accident, in 1841 amid the First Opium War, and in 1856 at the onset of the Second Opium War. The factories' importance diminished after the opening of the treaty ports and the end of the Canton System under the terms of the 1842 Anglo-Chinese Treaty of Nanking. After the Second Opium War, the factories were not rebuilt at their former site south of Guangzhou's old walled city but moved, first to Henan Island across the Pearl River and then to Shamian Island south of Guangzhou's western suburbs. Their former site is now part of Guangzhou Cultural Park.

Thirteen Factories
A reverse-glass export painting of the Thirteen Factories c. 1805, displaying the flags of Denmark, Spain, the United States, Sweden, Britain, and the Netherlands
Literal meaningThe 13 Trading Houses

English日本語 JapaneseVietnamese Terminology) in Chinese. This term's Cantonese pronunciation, tai-pan, only came into common English use after the rise of private trading from 1834 on.[2] A private captain might be his own supercargo; a large East Indiamen might have five or more, which were ranked "chief supercargo", "2nd supercargo", and so on. A team of supercargos divided their work, some overseeing sales, others tea purchases, silk purchases, and so forth.[3] Permanent supercargos might divide their work by the order ships arrived. The bookkeepers who attended them were called "writers"; those serving with the ship, who also checked these accounts, "pursers".[4]

"Hong" is the Cantonese pronunciation of , the Chinese term for a properly-licensed business.[2] By analogy, it was applied to its chief, the Hong merchant, and its property, the factories themselves. It has also been suggested the term was first applied to the factories as they were arranged in a row along the riverbank, "row" or "rank" being an alternative meaning of the same Chinese character.[5]

Hoppo, or fully the "Canton Sea Customs Minister", was the imperial official responsible for imperial customs and supervised the other officials. The word is Chinese Pidgin English, and some speculated that it derived from Hu Bu (Board of Revenue), but the official had no connection to the Board. The Hoppo was responsible for fixing the charges levied as a ship entered the port, a responsibility that allowed him to become quite rich.[6]

English日本語 JapaneseVietnamese History sent George Macartney to request that ports in northern China be opened to trade but was rejected by the Qianlong Emperor, not due to Macartney's refusal to kowtow in the presence of the Qianlong Emperor, as is commonly believed.[18][1] A second embassy under Lord Amherst fared no better in 1816–1817. The growth of European (particularly British) tea consumption supplemented the port's heavy trade in silk and porcelain. The balancing trade in goods from Europe was poor so payments had to be settled in large volumes of bullion until the trade in opium rose to take its place.

In 1835, the medical missionary Peter Parker opened an ophthalmic hospital in the area.[19] Parker commissioned Lam Qua, a Western-trained Chinese painter who also had workshops in the area, to paint pre-operative portraits of patients who had large tumors or other major deformities.

The viceroy Lin Zexu's vigorous suppression of the British opium trade precipitated the First Opium War (1839–1842), during which the factories were burnt to the ground. The 1842 Treaty of Nanking ending that war forced the ceding of Hong Kong Island to the British and opened the treaty ports of Shanghai, Ningbo ("Ningpo"), Xiamen ("Amoy"), and Fuzhou ("Fuchow"). It nominally opened the walled city of Guangzhou to the foreigners, but this was subsequently resisted by the city's viceroys on a number of pretexts. The factories were rebuilt at their former location but, with their diminished importance, they were not rebuilt a third time after their destruction at the onset of the Second Opium War. Instead, the foreign traders first operated off of Henan Island on the other side of the Pearl River and then, after the war's conclusion, rebuilt their Guangzhou operations at a new enclave on the Shamian sandbar south of the city's western suburbs.[20]

English日本語 JapaneseVietnamese Organization) and nine others in 1760—were granted a lucrative monopoly on foreign trade in exchange for various payments and obligations to the Qing state.[15] The hongs were organised into a guild known as the cohong, which also oversaw the Thai and domestic trade in the South China Sea. The Hoppo was appointed by the emperor to oversee taxation and customs collection; he also oversaw disputes among the merchants, in an attempt to restrain the foreigners from contacting the imperial government in Beijing directly.[1]

English日本語 JapaneseVietnamese Architecture小溪Xiǎoxī GuǎnYi⁴ Wo⁴ Hong⁴Dutch Factory荷蘭荷兰Hélán GuǎnJaap⁶ Yi⁶ Hong⁴British Factory
(New English Factory)英國英国Xīn Yīngguó GuǎnBo² Wo⁴ Hong⁴Fung-tae Factory
Chow-Chow Factory
(Miscellaneous Factory)Chǎochǎo Guǎn豐泰
Fung¹ Taai³ Hong⁴
Ba¹ Si¹ Hong⁴Old English Factory英國英国Jiù Yīngguó GuǎnLung⁴ Sun⁶ Hong⁴Swedish Factory瑞典瑞典Ruìdiǎn GuǎnSui⁶ Hong⁴"Imperial Factory"
(Austrian Factory)帝國帝国Dìguó GuǎnMa¹ Ying¹ Hong⁴Paoushun FactoryBǎoshùn GuǎnBo² Sun⁶ Hong⁴American Factory美國美国Měiguó GuǎnGwong² Yuen⁴ Hong⁴Mingqua's FactoryMíngguān GuǎnJung¹ Wo⁴ Hong⁴French Factory法蘭西法兰西Fǎlánxī GuǎnGo¹ Gung¹ Hong⁴Spanish Factory西班牙西班牙Xībānyá Guǎn大呂宋 lit.'Great Luzon trade house'Daai⁶ Lui⁵ Sung³ Hong⁴Danish Factory丹麥丹麦Dānmài Guǎn[16] lit.'yellow banner trade house'Wong⁴ Kei⁴ Hong⁴

The Chow-Chow Factory was indirectly linked to the British East India Company.

English日本語 JapaneseVietnamese Legacy Tamura (1998).
  • ^ a b c d Van_DykeMok (2015), p. xv.
  • ^ Van_DykeMok (2015), p. xv–xvi.
  • ^ a b c d e f g Van_DykeMok (2015), p. xvi.
  • ^ Couling, Samuel M A (1907). Encyclopaedia Sinica. p. 235.
  • ^ Downs (1997), p. 24.
  • ^ Gong (2006).
  • ^ a b c d e f g h i Van_DykeMok (2015), p. xvii.
  • ^ a b Van_DykeMok (2015), p. 2.
  • ^ a b Van_DykeMok (2015), p. xix.
  • ^ Van_DykeMok (2015), pp. xvii–xviii.
  • ^ a b c d Van_DykeMok (2015), p. 1.
  • ^ Napier (1995), p. 58.
  • ^ Van_DykeMok (2015), p. xviii.
  • ^ a b c d Roberts (1837).
  • ^ a b Van_DykeMok (2015), p. xx.
  • ^ Kjellberg (1975), p. 99.
  • ^ Ch'ien Lung, (Qianlong) Letter to George III
  • ^ a b Key & al. (1986).
  • ^ a b "Book review of Everything in Style: Harriet Low's Macau", Asian Review of Books.
  • ^ Downs (1997), p. 4.
  • ^ Perdue (2011).
  • ^ Van_DykeMok (2015), p. 90.
  • ^ Roberts 1837, p. 129.
  • Bibliography, PMID 6111.
  • Kjellberg, Sven T. (1975), Svenska Ostindiska Compagnierna 1731–1813: Kryddor, Te, Porslin, Siden [The Swedish East India Company 1731–1813: Spice, Tea, Porcelain, Silk] (2nd ed.), Malmö: Allhem, ISBN 91-7004-058-3, retrieved 24 September 2014. (in Swedish)
  • Napier, Priscilla (1995), Barbarian Eye, London: Brassey's, p. 58.
  • Perdue, Peter C. (2011). "Rise & Fall of the Canton Trade System". MIT Visualising Cultures. 2014.
  • Roberts, Edmund (1837), Embassy to the Eastern Courts of Cochin-China, Siam, and Muscat in the U.S. Sloop-of-war Peacock, Harper & Brothers, ISBN 9780608404066.
  • Tamura, Eileen (1998), China: Understanding its Past, University of Hawaii, ISBN 0-8248-1923-3.
  • Van Dyke, Paul A.; Mok, Maria Kar-wing (2015), Images of the Canton Factories 1760–1822: Reading History in Art (PDF), Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, ISBN 9789888208555.
  • English日本語 JapaneseVietnamese External links.

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